DOI:https://doi.org/10.3232/SJSS.2017.V7.N1.01

Biomass assessment in annelids: A photogrammetric method suitable for hatchlings and adults developed for Eisenia andrei

Maria Mercedes Ortega Hidalgo, Esther Iparraguirre Bolaños, Carlos Brea San-Nicolás

Abstract

A simple photogrammetric, non-destructive method for measuring individual biomass in tubular soft-bodied organisms has been developed using Eisenia andrei. Photographic procedures can be easily performed with low cost digital cameras and the number of pictures to be processed can be reduced to two per animal (Variation Coefficient ≤ 3.5%) even at sizes ~10 mg live weight. Image analysis was undertaken using CobCal 2.0© software. No bias was induced by body position. Accuracy in terms of the regression coefficient of the equation (y=a*xb) relating portrayed area (mm2) to live weight (mg) was 98%. Two different procedures were designed for laboratory and field uses. No differences between methods appeared at sizes over eight mg live weight, resulting in a common function relating image area to live weight results (PS = 3.27*LW0.681). Below 8 mg, the weight exponent remained unchanged but the value for the elevation rose to 4.21 indicating an increase of surface exposure to the camera lens in newly-hatched worms: the visible part of the geometric area (cylinder shape) enlarged from 34% to 43.52%.  As a conclusion this non-invasive procedure proved suitable for worms ranging from sizes of 0.2 to 3 000 mg live weight to determine biometric parameters such as length, volume, surface or body weight, which are key factors for interpreting physiological responses to underlying growth patterns.

Views: 445
Downloads PDF: 292

 

References


Abdo DA, Seager JW, Harvey ES, McDonald JI, Kendrick GA, Shortis MR. 2006. Efficiently measuring complex sessile epibenthic organisms using a novel photogrammetric technique. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. 339(1):120-133.

Bernardini V, Solimini AG , Carchini G. 2000. Application of an image analysis system to the determination of biomass (ash free dry weight) of pond macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 439(1):179-182.

Dalby PR, Baker GH, Smith SE. 1996. “Filter paper method” to remove soil from earthworm intestines and to standardise the water content of earthworm tissue. Soil Biol Biochem. 28(4):685-668.

Domínguez J, Briones MJI, Mato S. 1997. Effect of the diet on growth and reproduction of Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Pedobiologia 4(6):566-576.

Dominguez J, Edwards CA. 2011. Biology and Ecology of earthworm species used for vermicomposting. In: Edwards CA, Arancon NQ, Sherman RL, editors. Vermiculture Technology: Earthworms, organic wastes and environmental management. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 27-40.

Domínguez J, Edwards CA, Webster M. 2000. Vermicomposting of sewage sludge: Effect of bulking materials on the growth and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Pedobiologia 44(1):24-32.

Eisenhauer N, Schuy M, Butenschoen O, Scheu S. 2009. Direct and indirect effects of endogeic earthworms on plant seeds. Pedobiologia 52(3):151-162.

Florkin M. 2012. Chemical Zoology V4: Annelida, Echiuria, And Sipuncula. New York: Academic Press Inc.

Fründ HC, Butt K, Capowiez Y, Eisenhauer N, Emmerling C, Ernst G, Potthoff M, Schädle M, Schrader S. 2010. Using earthworms as model organisms in the laboratory: recommendations for experimental implementations. Pedobiologia 53(2):119-125.

Gunadi B, Blount C, Edwards CA. 2002. The growth and fecundity of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) in cattle solids pre-composted for different periods. Pedobiologia 46(1):15-23.

Koopmans M, Wijffels RH. 2008. Seasonal growth of the sponge Haliclona oculata (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida). Mar Biotechnol. 10(5):502-510.

Kretzschmar A, Bruchou C. 1991. Weight response to the soil water potential of the earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Bio Fert Soils. 12(3):209-212.

Kurtz JA, Kier WM. 2014. Scaling of the hydrostatic skeleton in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. J Exp Biol. 217(11):1860-1867.

Laverack MS. 1963. International series of monographs on pure and applied biology, zoology V15: The physiology of earthworms. New York: Pergamon Press Ltd.

Littler MM, Little DS. 1985. Non-destructive sampling. In: Littler MM, Littler DS, editors. Handbook of Phycological Methods: Ecological field Methods: Macroalgae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 161-175.

Lowe CN, Butt KR. 2005. Culture techniques fort soil dwelling earthworms: A review. Pedobiologia 49(5):401-413.

Martin N. 1986. Earthworm biomass: influence of gut content and formaldehyde preservation on live-to-dry weight ratios of three common species of pasture Lumbricidae. Soil Biol Biochem. 18(3):245-250.

O'Brien BR. 1957a. Evidence in support of an axial metabolic gradient in the earthworm. Aust J Exp Biol Med. 35(1):83-9.

O'Brien BR. 1957b. Tissue metabolism during posterior regeneration in the earthworm. Aust J Exp Biol Med. 35(4):373-380.

Page MJ, Northcote PT, Webb VL, Mackey S, Handley SJ. 2005. Aquaculture trials for the production of biologically active metabolites in the New Zealand sponge Mycale hentscheli. Aquaculture 250(1):256-269.

Perea J, García A, Acero R, Valerio D, Gómez G. 2008. A photogrammetric methodology for size measurements: application to the study of weight–shell diameter relationship in juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails. J Mollus Stud. 74(3):209-2013.

Ponder W, Hutchings P, Chapman R. 2002. Overview of the conservation of Australian marine invertebrates. A report for environment Australia. Australian Museum 6 College Street, Sydney, NSW 2010 Australia. 588 p.

Stovold RJ, Whalley WR, Harris PJ. 2003. Dehydration does not affect the radial pressures produced by the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. Biol Fert Soils. 37(1):23-28.

Vanaverbeke J, Steyaert M, Vanreusel A, Vincx M. 2003. Nematode biomass spectra as descriptors of functional changes due to human and natural impact. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 249:157-170.





With the patronage of
Universia
Avda. de Cantabria, s/n - 28660, Boadilla del Monte
Madrid, España