Availability and fractionation of Cu, Pb and Zn in an acid soil from Galicia (NW Spain) amended with municipal solid waste compost


The potential availability and chemical fractionation of trace elements in soil after compost addition was studied in a laboratory incubation. An acid agricultural soil, developed on biotitic schists, was amended with two rates of a municipal solid waste compost (3% and 6% weight) or lime (2.5 g CaCO3 kg-1, calculated to raise soil pH to values close to those of the compost-amended soil), and incubated in the laboratory for five months. Compost addition increased the availability of Cu, Pb and Zn (measured in DTPA extract) with respect to the control, whereas lime reduced it. Compost amendment increased soil total Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations, and their chemical distribution, assessed by means of the BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Reference) fractionation scheme, was different for each element. Compost addition increased Pb in the reducible (iron oxide-bound) fraction, Cu in the organic and iron oxide fractions, and Zn in the soluble and reducible fractions. Lime did not change the fractionation or total concentrations of the metals analysed. The most problematic element in the compost-amended soil from an environmental point of view is Zn, because it was found in highly mobile forms, while for Cu and Pb this risk is low.



Achiba WB, Lakhdara A, Gabteni N, Du Laing G, Verloo M, Boeckx P, Van Cleemput O, Jedidi N, Gallali T. 2010. Accumulation and fractionation of trace metals in a Tunisian calcareous soil amended with farmyard manure and municipal solid waste compost. J Hazard Mater. 176:99-108.

Barral MT, Paradelo R, Domínguez M, Díaz-Fierros F. 2011. Nutrient release dynamics in soils amended with municipal solid waste compost in laboratory incubations. Compost Sci Util. 19:235-243.

Barral MT, Paradelo R, Moldes AB, Domínguez M, Díaz-Fierros F. 2009. Utilization of MSW compost for organic matter conservation in agricultural soils of NW Spain. Resour Conserv Recycl. 53:529-534.

Bohn HL, McNeal BL, O’Connor GA. 2001. Soil chemistry, 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Businelli D, Massaccesi L, Said-Pullicino D, Gigliotti G. 2009. Long-term distribution, mobility and plant availability of compost-derived heavy metals in a landfill covering soil. Sci Total Environ. 407:1426-1435.

Cambier P, Pot V, Mercier V, Michaud A, Benoit P, Revallier A, Houot S. 2014. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils. Sci Total Environ. 499:560-573.

C.E.C. (Commission of the European Communities). 2002. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, “Towards a thematic strategy for soil protection”, COM (2002) 179 final. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium.

Chaney RL, Ryan JA, Kukier U, Brown SL, Siebielec G, Malik M, Angle JS. 2001. Heavy metal aspects of compost use. In: Stoffella PJ, Kahn BA, editors. Compost utilization in horticultural cropping systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC. p. 323-359.

Deeb M, Grimaldi M, Lerch TZ, Pando A, Podwojewski P, Blouin M. 2016. Influence of organic matter content on hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols. Pedosphere 26:486-498.

Diacono M, Montemurro F. 2010. Long-term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility. A review. Agron Sustain Dev. 30:410-422.

Farrell M, Jones DL. 2009. Critical evaluation of municipal solid waste composting and potential compost markets. Bioresource Technol. 100:4301-4310.

García-Gil JC, Ceppi SB, Velasco MI, Polo A, Senesi N. 2004. Long-term effects of amendment with municipal solid waste compost on the elemental and acidic functional group composition and pH-buffer capacity of soil humic acids. Geoderma 121:135-142.

Greenway GM, Song QJ. 2002. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process. J Environ Monitor. 4:300-305.

Guitián F, Carballas T. 1976. Técnicas de análisis de suelos. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Pico Sacro.

Hargreaves JC, Adl MS, Warman PR 2008. A review of the use of composted municipal solid waste in agriculture. Agr Ecosys Environ. 123:1-14.

He Z, Yang X, Kahn BA, Stoffella PJ, Calvert DV. 2001. Plant nutrition benefits of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and micronutrients from compost utilization. In: Stoffella PJ, Kahn BA, editors. Compost utilization in horticultural cropping systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC. p. 307-317.

Hernando S, Lobo MC, Polo A. 1989. Effect of the application of a municipal refuse compost on the physical and chemical properties of a soil. Sci Total Environ. 81/82:589-96.

IUSS Working Group WRB. 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Rome: FAO.

Jones RJA, Yli-Halla M, Demetriades A, Leifeld J, Robert M. 2004. Task Group 2 on status and distribution of soil organic matter in Europe Final Report. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.

Khan MJ, Jones DL. 2009. Effect of composts, lime and diammonium phosphate on the phytoavailability of heavy metals in a copper mine tailing soil. Pedosphere 19:631-641.

Lindsay WL, Norvell WA. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci Soc Amer J. 42:421-428.

Lopes C, Herva M, Franco-Uría A, Roca E. 2011. Inventory of heavy metal content in organic waste applied as fertilizer in agriculture: Evaluating the risk of transfer into the food chain. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 18:918-939

O’Sullivan JN, Asher CJ, Blamey FPC. 1997. Nutrient Disorders of Sweet Potato. ACIAR Monograph No. 48. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Paradelo R, Cambier P, Jara A, Jaulin A, Doublet J, Houot S. 2017. Mobility of Cu and Zn in soil amended with composts at different degrees of maturity. Waste Biomass Valorization (in press). doi 10.1007/s12649-016-9641-y.

Paradelo R, Moldes AB, Barral MT. 2009. Properties of slate mining wastes incubated with grape marc compost under laboratory conditions. Waste Manage. 29:579-584.

Paradelo R, Villada A, Devesa-Rey R, Moldes AB, Domínguez M, Patiño J, Barral MT. 2011. Distribution and availability of trace elements in municipal solid waste composts. J Environ Monitor. 13:201-211.

Planquart P, Bonin G, Prone A, Massiani C. 1999. Distribution, movement and plant availability of trace metals in soils amended with sewage sludge composts: application to low metal loadings. Sci Total Environ. 241:161-79.

Pueyo M, Sastre J, Hernández E, Vidal M, López-Sánchez JF, Rauret G. 2003. Prediction of trace element mobility in contaminated soils by sequential extraction. J Environ Qual. 32:2054-2066.

R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/.

Rauret G, López-Sánchez J-F, Sahuquillo A, Barahona E, Lachica M, Ure AM, Davidson CM, Gómez A, Lück D, Bacon J, Yli-Halla M, Muntau H, Quevauviller P. 2000. Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content. J Environ Monitor. 2:228-233.

Smith S. 2009. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge. Environ Int. 35:142-156.

Soil Survey Staff. 2006. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 10th ed. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture & Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Spanish Ministry of Agriculture. 2005. Real Decreto 824/2005, de 18 de junio, sobre fertilizantes. Spanish Official Bulletin 171:25592-25669.

Stevenson FJ. 1994. Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions, 2nd Edition. New York: Wiley.

Temminghoff EJM, Van der Zee SEATM, De Haan FAM. 1997. Copper mobility in a copper-contaminated sandy soil as affected by pH and solid and dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Technol. 31:1109-1115.

Vassilev SV, Braekman-Danheux C, Laurent P. 1999. Characterization of refuse-derived char from municipal solid waste: 1. Phase-mineral and chemical composition. Fuel Process Technol. 59:95-134.

Verde JR, Camps M, Macías F. 2005. Expression of andic soil properties in soils from Galicia (NW Spain) under forest and agricultural use. Eur J Soil Sci. 56:63-66.

Wallace GA, Wallace A. 1994. Lead and other potentially toxic heavy metals in soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. 25:137-141.

Xin X, Zhang J, Zhu A, Zhang C. 2016. Effects of long-term (23 years) mineral fertilizer and compost application on physical properties of fluvo-aquic soil in the North China Plain. Soil Tillage Res. 156:166-172.

Zheljazkov VD, Warman PR. 2004. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops. Environ Pollut. 131:87-95.