Evaluation of salinization and sodification in irrigated areas with limited soil data: Case study in southern Portugal
Due to its high land productivity, irrigated agriculture has an increasing role in food production. In the Alentejo region (southern Portugal) the irrigated area has grown since the completion of the Alqueva dam in 2002. Climatic change patterns foreseen for the Mediterranean region (more heat extremes, less precipitation and river flow, increasing risk of droughts and decrease in crop yields) are prone to soil salinization and sodification in irrigated areas in the region. The Roxo dam has some of the higher records of water salinity and sodicity in Portugal, which makes the Roxo irrigated area (RIA) a very interesting case study. This paper aimed at two main objectives for the RIA: (i) evaluate soil salinization and sodification, and make spatial predictions of soils susceptibility to these degradation types; (ii) monitor current salinity and sodicity of the water, and simulate the effect of empirical based scenarios of water salinity and sodicity. The RIA (8250 ha) extends ~20 km along the Roxo river (northern Aljustrel), in Cenozoic sedimentary formations. Main soils mapped are: Luvisols (~40%), Fluvisols and Regosols (~20%), Gleysols and Planosols (~20%) and Vertisols (~10%). However, there are only five soil profiles with detailed analytical data from a more recent soil survey with 83 profile descriptions in the RIA and surrounding area. Irrigation water of the Roxo dam and drainage water of the Roxo river were monitored almost monthly during Jul/2014-Nov/2015 and Jun/2016-Jan/2017, for determination of electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and other parameters. Soil salinity was not a significant problem in the RIA but a potential abundance of sodic soils was found that need future confirmation. A qualitative soil salinity index applied to the RIA suggests that soils most susceptible to salinity occur to a much smaller extent when this index is obtained from the soil profile data (approach B) than when it is based on information of the soil map (approach A). During the monitoring periods, both the water of the Roxo dam and of the Roxo river were slight to moderate saline for crop growth, with no restrictions for soil infiltration. The Roxo dam received water from the Alqueva dam for the first time between June and September 2016, and a small, though regular, decrease of the water EC (0.99 to 0.76 dS m-1) was observed during the same period. Three scenarios of irrigation water, identified by Low/High EC-SAR (L-L, H-H, L-H) were simulated with the Watsuit model. Low EC water (L-L and L-H) represent wet years and show no risk of soil salinity in the rootzone. However, the risk of waterlogging increases in sodic soils, especially with the scenario (L-H). High EC water (H-H) represents dryer years and results in severe saline conditions in the rootzone. In all three scenarios, prosodic and sodic soils are most sensible to degradation by salinization, sodification or both.
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