Efecto de residuos mezclados con biochar como enmienda del suelo en la solubilidad de elementos traza en un suelo de mina

Alfonso Rodríguez-Vila, Rubén Forján, Rafael S. Guedes, Emma F. Covelo


Las minas abandonadas suelen causar la contaminación de las aguas superficiales y subsuperficiales. Se llevó a cabo un experimento con macetas durante 3 meses para evaluar la influencia de la mezcla de residuos y biochar como enmienda en una serie de características químicas y en la solubilidad de elementos traza en un suelo de mina. La concentración de los elementos traza se midió en el agua de poro del suelo de mina enmendado con distintas proporciones de la mezcla de residuos-biochar (20, 40, 80 y 100%) plantado con Brassica juncea. Los resultados mostraron que la aplicación de enmienda mejoró las condiciones del suelo como el pH, carbono total, carbono orgánico disuelto, nitrógeno total, y disminuyó la concentración de Al (99,99%), Co (99,95%), Cu (99,97%), Fe (99,79%) y Ni (99,91%) en el agua de poro, comparado con los suelos sin enmienda. Los residuos y biochar también promovieron el establecimiento de B. juncea en el suelo de mina. Estos resultados destacan la importancia de mitigar los impactos de las minas abandonadas en la calidad del agua. El uso de residuos y biochar como enmienda combinado con B. juncea fue efectivo para reducir las concentraciones de metales en el agua de poro y el riesgo de toxicidad asociado.

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