Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under four forest species in the Mediterranean region
The organic and mineral horizons of soils are of great importance in C and N storage in forest areas. However, knowledge of the effects of forest species on the stocks of these elements is still scarce, especially in Portugal. In order to contribute to this knowledge, a study was carried out in forest stands of Pinus pinaster Aiton (PP), Pinus nigra Arnold (PN), Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa Miller (CS), installed in the 1950s in northern Portugal. Sampling areas with similar topography, lithology and climate were selected, in order to better identify hypothesized differences in C and N storage due to forest species effect. In each stand, 15 sites were selected randomly and the forest floor (organic layers) was collected in a 0.49 m2 area. The layers H, L and F of the forest floor were identified and, for L and F, their components were separated in leaves, pine cones/chestnut husks and branches. At the same sites, soil samples were also collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth. At these depths, undisturbed samples were also collected for bulk density determination. The concentrations of C and N were determined in forest floor and mineral components of the soil, and converted in mass per unit area. The quantity of C storage per unit area followed the sequence PN > PM > CS > PP, while for N the sequence was CS > PM > PN > PP, OM and PP keeping the same relative position in the sequence in both C and N concentrations. The PM and CS species store similar amounts of C and N, and about 90% of these elements is found in the upper 20 cm of the mineral soil. In PN and PP species, the contribution of forest floor to the storage of these elements is more expressive than in the other species, but lower than 30% in all cases.
Agroconsultores e Coba. 1991. Carta dos Solos do Nordeste de Portugal. Vila Real: PDRITM, UTAD.
Alban DH. 1982. Effects of nutrient accumulation by aspen, spruce, and pine on soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 46:853-861.
Bargali SS, Shukla K, Singh L, Grosh L, Lakhera ML. 2015. Leaf litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics in four tree species of dry deciduous forest. Trop Ecol. 56(2):191-200.
Berg B, McClaugherty C. 2014. Plant litter: decomposition, humus formation, carbon sequestration. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Cools N, Vesterdal L, De Vos B, Vanguelova E, Hansen K. 2014. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils. For Ecol Manage. 311:3-16.
Cremer M, Kern NV, Prietzel J. 2016. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks under pure and mixed stands of European beech, Douglas fir and Norway spruce. For Ecol Manage. 367:30-40.
Díaz-Pinés E, Rubio A, van Miegroet H, Montes F, Benito M. 2011. Does tree species composition control soil organic carbon pools in Mediterranean mountain forests? For Ecol Manage. 262:1895-1904.
Fernández IJ, Son Y, Kraske CR, Rustad LE, David MB. 1993. Soil carbon dioxide characteristics under different forest types and after harvest. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 57:1115-1121.
Fischer RF, Binkley D. 2012. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils. 4th Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Fonseca F, Figueiredo T. 2010. Impact of tree species replacement on carbon stocks in forest floor and mineral soil. In: Proceedings of the IUFRO-Landscape Ecology International Conference; 2010 Sept 21-27; Bragança, Portugal; Forest Landscapes and Global Change: New Frontiers in Management, Conservation and Restoration. p. 557-562.
Fonseca F, Figueiredo T. 2012. Carbon in soils of Montesinho Natural Park, Northeast Portugal: preliminary map-based estimate of its storage and stability. Spanish Journal of Rural Development 3(1):71-78.
Fonseca F, Figueiredo T, Ramos MAB. 2012. Carbon storage in the Mediterranean upland shrub communities of Montesinho Natural Park, northeast of Portugal. Agroforestry Systems 86:463-475.
Fyles JW, Fyles IH, Feller MC. 1991. Nitrogen mineralization characteristics of forest floor organic matter on slash-burned sites in coastal British Columbia. Can J For Res. 21:235-241.
Guendehou GS, Liski J, Tuomi M, Moudachirou M, Sinsin B, Makipaa R. 2014. Decomposition and changes in chemical composition of leaf litter of five dominant tree species in a West African tropical forest. Trop Ecol. 55:207-220.
Gurmesa GA, Schmidt IK, Gundersen P, Vesterdal L. 2013. Soil carbon accumulation and nitrogen retention traits of four tree species grown in common gardens. For Ecol Manage. 309:47-57.
Herrero C, Turrión B, Pando V, Bravo F. 2016. Carbon content of forest floor and mineral soil in Mediterranean Pinus spp. and Oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain. Forest Syst. 25(2):e065.
Hobbie SE. 1996. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaska tundra. Ecol Monogr. 66:502-522.
INMG. 1991. Normais Climatológicas da Região de "Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro" e "Beira Interior" Correspondentes a 1951-1980. Fascículo XLIX, Volume 3, 3ª Região, Lisboa.
ISO. 1995. Soil quality – determination of organic and total carbon after dry combustion (elementary analysis). International Standard ISO 10694. Geneva (Switzerland): International Organization for Standardization.
IUSS Working Group 2015. World reference base for soil resources, update 2015. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports 106. Rome: FAO.
Kaspari M, García MN, Harms KE, Santana M, Wright SJ, Joseph B. Yavitt JB. 2008. Multiple nutrients limit litterfall and decomposition in a tropical forest. Ecol Lett. 11:35-43.
Keith DM, Johnson EA, Valeo C. 2010. Moisture cycles of the forest floor organic layer (F and H layers) during drying, Water Resour Res. 46:W07529.
Kooch Y, Samadzadeh B, Hosseini SM. 2017. The effects of broad-leaved tree species on litter quality and soil properties in a plain forest stand. Catena 150:223-229.
Mahendrappa MK, Foster NW, Weetman GF, Krause HH. 1986. Nutrient cycling in forest soils. Can J Soil Sci. 66(4):547-572.
Martins A, Azevedo S, Raimundo F, Carvalho L, Madeira M. 2009. Decomposição de folhada de quatro espécies florestais no Norte de Portugal: Taxa de decomposição e evolução da composição estrutural e do teor em nutrientes. Rev Ciências Agrárias 32(1):223-237.
Martins A, Coutinho J, Costa S, Fonseca F, Madeira M. 2007. A folhada de quatro povoamentos florestais no Norte de Portugal: Produção e concentração e quantidade de nutrientes devolvidos ao solo. Rev Ciências Agrárias 30(2):201-216.
Marty C, Houle D, Gagnon C, Courchesne F. 2017. The relationships of soil total nitrogen concentrations, pools and C:N ratios with climate, vegetation types and nitrate deposition in temperate and boreal forests of eastern Canada. Catena 152:163-172.
Merzouki A, Lossaint P, Billes G, Rapp M. 1990. L’effet d’une coupe à blanc sur le compartiment biomasse microbienne d’un sol rouge méditerranéen. Bull Ecol. 21(2):83-88.
Mueller KE, Eissenstat DM, Hobbie SE, Oleksyn J, Jagodzinski AM, Reich PB, Chadwick OA, Chorover J. 2012. Tree species effects on coupled cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and acidity in mineral soils at a common garden experiment. Biogeochemistry 111:601-614.
Neirynck J, Mirtcheva S, Sioen G, Lust N. 2000. Impact of Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Fraxinus excelsior L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. on earthworm biomass and physico-chemical properties of loamy topsoil. For Ecol Manage. 133:275-286.
Nunes L, Patrício M, Tomé J, Tomé M. 2010. Carbon and nutrients stocks in even-aged maritime pine stands from Portugal. Forest Syst. 19:434-448.
Oostra S, Majdi H, Olsson M. 2006. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden. Scand J For Res. 21:364-371.
Ordóñez JAB, de Jong BHJ, Garcáa-Oliva F, Aviña FL, Pérez JV, Guerrero G, Martínez R, Masera O. 2008. Carbon content in vegetation, litter and soil under 10 different land-use and land-cover classes in the Central Highlands of Michoacan, Mexico. For Ecol Manage. 255:2074-2084.
Park A. 2015. Carbon storage and stand conversion in a pine-dominated boreal forest landscape. For Ecol Manage. 340:70-81.
Polglase PJ, Jokela EJ, Comerforf NB. 1992. Phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon fractions in litter and soil of southern pine plantations. Soil Sci Am J. 56:566-572.
Prescott CE, Grayston SJ. 2013. Tree species influence on microbial communities in litter and soil: Current knowledge and research needs. For Ecol Manage. 309:19-27.
Rapp M. 1984. Répartition et flux de matière organique dans un écosystème à Pinus pinea L. Ann Sci For. 41(3):253-272.
Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Modrzynski J, Mrozinski P, Hobbie SE, Eissenstat DM, Chorover J, Chadwick OA, Hale CM, Tjoelker MG. 2005. Linking litter calcium, earthworms and soil properties: a common garden test with 14 tree species. Ecol Lett. 8(8):811-818.
Santa-Regina I. 2001. Litterfall, decomposition and nutrient release in three semiarid forests of the Duero basin, Spain. Forestry 74(4):4347-358.
Schroth G, D’Angelo SA, Teixeira WG, Haag D, Lieberei R. 2002. Conversion of secondary forest into agroforestry and monoculture plantations in Amazonia: consequences for biomass, litter and soil carbon stocks after 7 years. For Ecol Manage. 163:131-150.
Schulp CJE, Nabuurs G-J, Verburg PH, de Waal RW. 2008. Effect of tree species on carbon stocks in forest floor and mineral soil and implications for soil carbon inventories. For Ecol Manage. 256:482-490.
Shaw MR, Harte J. 2001. Control of Litter Decomposition in a Subalpine Meadow-Sagebrush Steppe Ecotone under Climate Change. Ecol Appl. 11(4):1206-1223.
Sil A, Fonseca F, Gonçalves J, Honrado J, Marta-Pedroso C, Alonso J, Ramos M, Azevedo JC. 2017. Analysing carbon sequestration and storage dynamics in a changing mountain landscape in Portugal: insights for management and planning. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 13(2):82-104.
Thomsen IK, Petersen BM, Bruun S, Jensen LS, Christensen BT. 2008. Estimating soil C loss potentials from the C to N ratio. Soil Biol Biochem. 40:849-852.
Trum F, Titeux H, Ranger J, Delvaux B. 2011. Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen transformation patterns in forest floor profiles. Ann For Sci. 68(4):837-847.
Vallet P, Meredieu C, Seynave I, Bélouard T, Dhôte JF. 2009. Species substitution for carbon storage: Sessile oak versus Corsican pine in France as a case study. For Ecol Manage. 257:1314-1323.
van Delft B, de Waal RW, Kemmers RH, Mekkink P, Sevink J. 2006. Field guide Humus Forms: Description and classification of humus forms for ecological applications. Wageningen: Alterra.
Vesterdal L, Clarke N, Sigurdsson BD, Gundersen P. 2013. Do tree species influence soil carbon stocks in temperate and boreal forests? For Ecol Manage. 309:4-18.
Vesterdal L, Schmidt IK, Callesen I, Nilsson LO, Gundersen P. 2008. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species. For Ecol Manage. 255:35-48.
Wang QK, Wang SL. 2007. Soil organic matter under different forest types in Southern China. Geoderma 142:349-356.
Wardle DA. 1993. Changes in the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient during leaf litter succession in some New Zealand forest and scrubland ecosystems. Funct Ecol. 7:346-355.
Wesemael BV. 1993. Litter decomposition and nutrient distribution in humus profiles in some Mediterranean forests in southern Tuscany. For Ecol Manage. 57:99-114.
Yamashita T, Feiner H, Bettina J, Helfrich M, Ludwig B. 2006. Organic matter in density fractions of water-stable aggregates in silty soils: effect of land use. Soil Biol Biochem. 38:3222-3234.
Zhang M, Yang H, Xie B, Sun P, Li J, Zou J, Wang Y. 2016. Changes of C and N stocks in the subtropical Dianchi lake watershed in southwest China due to LUCC. Eurasian J Soil Sci. 5(1):17-23.